Our current research utilizes two cutting edge approaches, stem cell transplantation and gene silencing. A variety of different stem cell types have been evaluated in animal models and humans with SCI. Previous studies have reported that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) promotes neural repair after SCI, even when administered 5 days after injury. Transplanted hUCB-MSCs differentiate into various neural cells and induce motor function improvement in SCI rat models. In concert with these findings, we also have recently reported that hUCB-MSCs improved the locomotor recovery of spinal cord injured rats while regulating the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, axon outgrowth and myelin degradation. However, more detail experiments are needed to delineate the mechanism of how hUCB-MSCs modulate NP and functional improvement after SCI.